TERMS USED IN COOKERY
63. It is important that every person who is engaged in the preparation of food be thoroughly familiar with the various terms that are used in cookery. Many of these are not understood by the average person, because they are foreign terms or words that are seldom employed in other occupations. However, as they occur frequently in recipes, cook books, menus, etc., familiarity with them will enable one to follow recipes and to make up menus in a more intelligent manner.
In view of these facts, a table of terms that are made use of in cookery is here given, together with definitions of the words and, wherever it has been deemed necessary, with as accurate pronunciations as can be obtained. The terms are given in bold-faced type, and for easy reference are arranged alphabetically. It is recommended that constant use be made of this table, for much of the success achieved in cookery depends on a clear understanding of the words and expressions that are peculiar to this science.
À la; au; aux (ah lah; o; o).--With; dressed in a certain style; as, smelts à la tartare, which means smelts with tartare sauce.
Au gratin (o gra-tang).--Literally, dressed with brown crumbs. In actual practice, also flavored with grated cheese.
Au naturel (o nat-ü-rayl).--A term applied to uncooked vegetables, to indicate that they are served in their natural state without sauce or dressing applied. Potatoes au naturel are served cooked; but unpeeled.
Béchamel (bay-sham-ayl).--A sauce made with white stock and cream or milk-named from a celebrated cook.
Biscuit Glacé (bis-kü-ee glah-say).--Ice cream served in glacéd shells, sometimes in paper cases.
Bisque.--A thick soup usually made from shellfish or game; also, an ice cream to which finely chopped macaroons have been added.
Bouchées (boosh-ay).--Small patties; literally, a mouthful.
Boudin (boo-dang).--A delicate side dish prepared with forcemeat.
Bouquet of Herbs.--A bouquet consisting of a sprig of parsley, thyme, and sweet marjoram, a bay leaf, and perhaps a stalk of celery, tied firmly together and used as flavoring in a soup or stew. Arranged in this way, the herbs are more easily removed when cooked.
Café au Lait (ka-fay o lay).--Coffee with milk.
Café Noir (ka-fay nooar).--Black coffee.
Canapés (kan-ap-ay).--Small slices of bread toasted or sautéd in butter and spread with a savory paste of meats, fish, or vegetables. They are served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course for lunch or dinner.
Capers.--Small pickled buds of a European shrub, used in sauces and in seasoning.
Capon.--A male fowl castrated for the purpose of improving the quality of the flesh.
Caramel.--A sirup of browned sugar.
Casserole.--A covered earthenware dish in which foods are cooked.
Champignons (shang-pe-nyong).--The French name for mushrooms.
Chartreuse (shar-truhz).--A preparation of game, meat, fish, etc., molded in jelly and surrounded by vegetables. The name was given to the dish by the monks of the monastery of Chartreuse.
Chiffonade (shif-fong-ad).--Salad herbs finely shredded and then sautéd or used in salads.
Chillies.--Small red peppers used in seasoning.
Chives.--An herb allied to the onion family.
Chutney.--An East Indian sweet pickle.
Citron.--The rind of a fruit of the lemon species preserved in sugar.
Collops.--Meat cut in small pieces.
Compote.--Fruit stewed in sirup.
Coquilles (ko-ke-yuh).--Scallop shells in which fish or oysters are sometimes served.
Créole, à la (kray-ol, ah lah).--With tomatoes.
Croustade (kroos-tad).--A thick piece of bread that has been hollowed out and then toasted or fried crisp. The depression is filled with food.
Croutons (kroo-tong***).--Bread diced and fried or toasted to serve with or in soup.
Curry.--An East Indian preparation made of hot seeds, spices, and dried herbs.
Demi-Tasse (duh-mee tass).--Literally, a half cup. As commonly used, it refers to a small cup in which after-dinner coffee is served.
Dill.--A plant used for flavoring pickles.
En coquille (ang ko-ke-yuh).--Served in shells.
Entrées (ang-tray).--Small made dishes served with lunch or dinner. They are sometimes served as a course between the main courses of a meal.
Escarole (ays-kar-ol).--A broad-leaved kind of endive.
Farce or Forcemeat.--A mixture of meat, bread, etc., used as stuffing.
Fillets (fe-lay).--Long, thin pieces of meat or fish generally rolled and tied.
Fillet Mignons (fe-lay me-nyong).--Small slices from fillet of beef, served with steak.
Fondant.--Sugar boiled with water and stirred to a heavy paste. It is used for the icing of cake or the making of French candies.
Fondue.--A dish made usually with melted or grated cheese. There are several varieties of this preparation.
Glacé (glah-say).-Covered with icing; literally, a shining surface.
Glaze.--The juices of meat cooked down to a concentration and used as a foundation for soups and gravies.
Goulash (gool-ash).--A Hungarian beef stew, highly seasoned.
Gumbo.--A dish of food made of young capsules of okra, seasoned with salt and pepper, stewed and then served with melted butter.
Haricot (har-e-ko).--A small bean; a bit; also, a stew in which the meat and vegetables are finely divided.
Hors d'oeuvres (or-d'uhvr').--Relishes.
Italiene, à la (e-tal-yang, ah lah).--In Italian style.
Jardinière (zhar-de-nyayr).--A mixed preparation of vegetables stewed in their own sauce; also, a garnish of various vegetables.
Julienne (zhü-lyayn).--A clear soup with shredded vegetables.
Junket.--Milk jellied by means of rennet.
Kippered.--Dried or smoked.
Larding.--The insertion of strips of fat pork into lean meat. The fat is inserted before cooking.
Lardon.--A piece of salt pork or bacon used in larding.
Legumes.--The vegetables belonging to the bean family; namely, beans, peas, and lentils.
Lentils.--A variety of the class of vegetables called legumes.
Macédoine (mah-say-dooan).--A mixture of green vegetables.
Marinade (mar-e-nad).--A pickle used for seasoning meat or fish before cooking.
Marinate.--To pickle in vinegar or French dressing, as meat or fish is seasoned.
Menu.--A bill of fare.
Meringue (muh-rang).--A kind of icing made of white of egg and sugar well beaten.
Mousse (moos).--Ice cream made with whipped cream and beaten egg and frozen without turning.
Nougat (noo-gah).--A mixture of almonds and sugar.
Paprika.--Hungarian sweet pepper ground fine and used as a seasoning. It is less stinging than red or Cayenne pepper.
Pâté (pa-tay).--A little pie; a pastry or patty.
Pimiento.--Sweet red peppers used as a vegetable, a salad, or a relish.
Pistachio (pis-ta-shioh).--A pale greenish nut resembling an almond.
Purée (pü-ray).-A thick soup containing cooked vegetables that have been rubbed through a sieve.
Ragoût (ra-goo).--A stew made of meat or meat and vegetables and served with a sauce.
Ramekin.--A preparation of cheese and puff paste or toast, which is baked or browned. This word is sometimes used to designate the dish in which such a mixture is cooked.
Réchauffé (ray-sho-fay).--A warmed-over dish.
Rissoles.--Small shapes of puff paste filled with some mixture and fried or baked. It also refers to balls of minced meat, egged, crumbed, and fried until crisp.
Roux (roo).--Thickening made with butter and flour.
Salmi (sal-mee).--A stew or hash of game.
Salpicon (sal-pee-kong).--Minced poultry, ham, or other meats mixed with a thick sauce.
Sauce Piquante (sos-pe-kangt).--An acid sauce.
Shallot.--A variety of onion.
Sorbet (sor-bay).--A sherbet, frozen punch, or water ice; the same as sherbet.
Soufflé (soo-flay).--Literally, puffed up. As generally understood, it is a spongy mixture made light with eggs and baked, the foundation of which may be meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, or fruit.
Soy.--A Japanese sauce prepared from the seed of the soy bean. It has an agreeable flavor and a clear brown color and is used to color soups and sauces.
Stock.--The foundation for soup made by cooking meat, bones, and vegetables.
Sultanas.--White or yellow seedless grapes, grown in Corinth.
Tarragon (tar-ra-gon).--An herb used in seasoning certain dressing and sauces; it is also employed in flavoring tarragon vinegar.
Tartare Sauce (tar-tar sos).--A mayonnaise dressing to which have been added chopped pickle, capers, and parsley in order to make a tart sauce for fish.
Timbale.--A pie raised in a mold; also, a shell filled with forcemeat or ragoût.
Truffles.--A species of fungi growing in clusters some inches below the soil, and having an agreeable perfume, which is easily scented by pigs, who are fond of them, and by dogs trained to find them. They are found abundantly in France, but are not subject to cultivation. They are used chiefly for seasoning and garnishing.
Vanilla.--The bean of the tropical orchid or the extract obtained from this fruit. Used in flavoring desserts, etc.
Vinaigrette Sauce (ve-nay-grayt sos).--A sauce made with oil and vinegar, to which are added finely minced chives, peppers, or other highly flavored green vegetables and spices.
Vol au Vent (vol o vang).--A crust of light puff paste. Also, a large pâté or form of pastry filled with a savory preparation of oysters, fish, or meat and a cream sauce.
Zwieback (tsouee-bak).--Bread toasted twice.
Source: Woman's Institute Library of Cookery
Other Chapters: The Problem of Food | Selection of Food | Food Substances | Food Value | Digestion and Absorption of Food | Preparation of Food | Methods of Cooking | Heat for Cooking | Utensils for Cooking | Preparing Foods for Cooking | Order of Work | Cooking Time Table | Care of Food | Menus and Recipes | Terms Used in Cookery